Fueling the rise of machine learning and deep learning is the availability of massive amounts of data, often referred to as big data. If you wanted to create an AI program to identify pictures of cats, you could access millions of cat images online. The same is true, or more true, of other types of data. Various organizations have access to vast amounts of data, including charge card transactions, user behaviors on websites, data from online games, published medical studies, satellite images, online maps, census reports, voter records, economic data and machine-generated data (from machines equipped with sensors that report the status of their operation and any problems they detect).
This treasure trove of data has given machine learning a huge advantage over symbolic systems. Having a neural network chew on gigabytes of data and report on it is much easier and quicker than having an expert identify and input patterns and reasoning schemas to enable the computer to deliver accurate responses.
In some ways the evolution of machine learning is similar to how online search engines evolved. Early on, users would consult website directories such as Yahoo! to find what they were looking for — directories that were created and maintained by humans. Website owners would submit their sites to Yahoo! and suggest the categories in which to place them. Yahoo! personnel would then vet the sites and add them to the directory or deny the request. The process was time-consuming and labor-intensive, but it worked well when the web had relatively few websites. When the thousands of websites proliferated into millions and then crossed the one billion threshold, the system broke down fairly quickly. Human beings couldn’t work quickly enough to keep the Yahoo! directories current.
In the mid-1990s Yahoo! partnered with a smaller company called Google that had developed a search engine to locate and categorize web pages. Google’s first search engine examined backlinks (pages that linked to a given page) to determine the relevance and authority of the given page and rank it accordingly in its search results. Since then, Google has developed additional algorithms to determine a page’s rank (or relevance); for example, the more users who enter the same search phrase and click the same link, the higher the ranking that page receives. This approach is similar to the way neurons in an artificial neural network strengthen their connections.
The fact that Google is one of the companies most enthusiastic about AI is no coincidence. The entire business has been built on using machines to interpret massive amounts of data. Rosenblatt’s preceptrons could look through only a couple grainy images. Now we have processors that are at least a million times faster sorting through massive amounts of data to find content that’s most likely to be relevant to whatever a user searches for.
Deep learning architecture adds even more power, enabling machines to identify patterns in data that just a few decades ago would have been nearly imperceptible. With more layers in the neural network, it can perceive details that would go unnoticed by most humans. These deep learning artificial networks look at so much data and create so many new connections that it’s not even clear how these programs discover the patterns.
A deep learning neural network is like a black box swirling together computation and data to determine what it means to be a cat. No human knows how the network arrives at its decision. Is it the whiskers? Is it the ears? Or is it something about all cats that we humans are unable to see? In a sense, the deep learning network creates its own model for what it means to be a cat, a model that as of right now humans can only copy or read, but not understand or interpret.
In 2012, Google’s DeepMind project did just that. Developers fed 10 million random images from YouTube videos into a network that had over 1 billion neural connections running on 16,000 processors. They didn’t label any of the data. So the network didn’t know what it meant to be a cat, human or a car. Instead the network just looked through the images and came up with its own clusters. It found that many of the videos contained a very similar cluster. To the network this cluster looked like this.
A “cat” from “Building high-level features using large scale unsupervised learning”
Now as a human you might recognize this as the face of a cat. To the neural network this was just a very common something that it saw in many of the videos. In a sense it invented its own interpretation of a cat. A human might go through and tell the network that this is a cat, but this isn’t necessary for the network to find cats in these videos. In fact the network was able to identify a “cat” 74.8% of the time. In a nod to Alan Turing, the Cato Institute’s Julian Sanchez called this the “Purring Test.”
If you decide to start working with AI, accept the fact that your network might be sensing things that humans are unable to perceive. Artificial intelligence is not the same as human intelligence, and even though we may reach the same conclusions, we’re definitely not going through the same process.